What are Casting Processes? 11 Different Casting Processes
- Sand Casting: The metal is melted and the sand is poured into the molds and after cooling, the molds are broken and the part is removed.
- Permanent Casting: The metal is melted and poured into the mold and takes shape in the mold. It is removed after cooling.
- Die Casting: The molten metal is injected into a mold under high pressure. With this method, complex and sensitive parts can be produced.
- Lost Foam Casting: Metal is cast using the foam model. The model burns and takes shape in the metal mold.
- Hot Forming Casting: The metal is melted and poured directly into the forming molds, and after cooling, the part is removed.
- Cold Forming Casting: The metal used for casting is formed at room temperature.
- Horizontal Casting: The casting vessel is placed horizontally and the molten metal is poured into the mold.
- Vertical Casting: The casting vessel is placed vertically and the metal is poured into the mold from above.
- Horizontal-Hot Casting: The metal is placed in a horizontal casting vessel and cast at high temperature.
- Fog Dump: The metal is shaped by evaporation or spraying.
- Electro-Casting: It is the process of coating or casting metal on an electrode through electrolysis.
These casting processes are used to manufacture parts of different materials, sizes and shapes. The advantages and uses of each process are different, and the method chosen is determined by the production requirements and the characteristics of the part.
How is the Casting Process Done?
The casting process generally includes the following steps:
- Model Preparation: The first step is to model or prepare the part to be produced. The model is usually made of wood, plastic or metal and must have the desired part shape and dimensions.
- Mold Preparation: A mold is prepared by pouring mold material (usually sand) on the model. The mold material is compressed or structured to preserve the shape and details of the model.
- Melting of Metal: The metal material to be used for casting is melted at high temperature in a furnace or furnace. In this process, a suitable melting furnace or furnace is used and the metal is melted.
- Metal Pouring: The molten metal is poured into the previously prepared mold. Appropriate techniques are used to ensure that the metal flows towards the mold and the mold is completely filled.
- Cooling and Part Removal: It is waited for the poured metal to cool down. After cooling, the mold breaks or opens and the part inside is removed. If necessary, excess residues of the part are cleaned or corrections are made.
- Processing and Finishing: The removed part is shaped, cut, grinded or other processes are applied by passing through the processing steps when necessary. These steps are done so that the part takes its final shape and has the desired properties.
Although casting is a general method used to manufacture parts, there may be some variation and additional steps in different casting methods and materials. In addition, more complex equipment and processes may be required to manufacture large or complex parts.
What are the Stages of the Casting Process?
The casting process usually includes the following stages:
- Model Preparation: The first step is to model or prepare the part to be produced. The model can be made of materials such as wood, plastic or metal. This model should have the desired shape, size and details of the final piece.
- Mold Preparation: A mold is prepared by pouring mold material on the model. The mold material may be sand, ceramics, plaster, silica or special casting materials. The mold is carefully made to preserve the shape and details of the model.
- Melting of Metal: The metal material to be used for casting is melted at high temperature in a suitable melting furnace or furnace. In this step, the metal is melted for a certain period of time to reach the appropriate melting temperature.
- Molding: The molten metal is poured into the prepared mold. Pouring is carried out using special techniques to allow the metal to flow into the mold. The metal takes the desired shape inside the mold.
- Cooling: The poured metal is expected to cool. This step may involve natural cooling of the metal or sometimes cooling methods such as water or air. The cooling of the metal stabilizes the structure of the part.
- Removing the Part: The cooled metal is removed from the mold. The mold is broken, cut or opened using appropriate methods. The part is carefully removed from the mold.
- Cleaning and Processing: The removed part is cleaned of excess residue and mold residues when necessary. In addition, cutting, grinding, sanding, drilling or other machining steps can be applied to ensure the part has the desired properties and tolerances.
- Finishing and Control: The part can be subjected to the desired surface roughness, paint or coating. Finally, the quality and size control of the part is done. If necessary, correction processes are applied to ensure that the final product reaches the desired quality standard.
These stages show how the casting process generally takes place. However, the stages and details may vary depending on the casting method used, material and part properties.
For more blogs on casting and pressure casting: What is Die Casting? Processes, Materials, Applications, Costs